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Safe and Unsafe Foods for Dogs: A Comprehensive Guide

Safe and Unsafe Foods for Dogs

The Importance of Your Dog’s Diet

As a loving pet parent, you want the best for your furry friend. This includes providing them with a balanced diet that not only satisfies their hunger but also keeps them healthy and happy. However, not all foods that are safe for human consumption are safe for dogs. Some can cause minor digestive issues, while others can lead to serious health problems or even be fatal. This guide will help you understand which foods are safe and which ones to avoid, ensuring your dog enjoys a long, healthy life.

Foods That Are Safe for Dogs

Dogs are omnivores, meaning they can eat a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, and meats. Here are some dog-friendly foods that can be a part of your pet’s balanced diet:

Fruits and Vegetables

Many fruits and vegetables are safe for dogs and can provide essential vitamins and minerals. These include apples (seeds removed), bananas, blueberries, cucumbers, carrots, and peas. However, it’s important to feed these in moderation as too much can lead to gastrointestinal upset.

Lean Meats

Lean meats like chicken, turkey, and fish are excellent sources of protein for dogs. They should be cooked thoroughly and served without any seasoning or sauces, which can contain ingredients harmful to dogs.

Whole Grains

Whole grains such as brown rice, oatmeal, and quinoa can be a good source of dietary fiber and other nutrients for dogs. However, they should make up a small portion of your dog’s diet and always be cooked before serving.

Dog-Friendly Dairy Products

Some dogs can tolerate small amounts of plain yogurt and cheese. These can provide some protein and calcium, but should be given sparingly due to their high-fat content and potential to cause digestive upset in some dogs.

Remember, even safe foods should be introduced gradually and fed in moderation to avoid any digestive issues. Always observe your dog after introducing a new food to their diet to ensure they don’t have any adverse reactions.

Understand the crucial role of fats in your dog’s diet with our article The Essential Role of Fats in Your Dog’s Diet.

Foods That Are Harmful to Dogs

Just as there are foods that are beneficial to dogs, there are also those that can be harmful. Here are some foods you should never feed your dog:

Chocolate, Coffee, and Caffeine

These products contain substances called methylxanthines, which can cause vomiting, diarrhea, panting, excessive thirst, hyperactivity, abnormal heart rhythm, tremors, seizures, and even death in dogs. Darker chocolate is more dangerous than milk chocolate, and baking chocolate contains the highest level of methylxanthines.

Grapes and Raisins

These fruits can cause kidney failure in dogs. The toxic substance within them is unknown, but it’s best to avoid feeding grapes and raisins to dogs altogether.

Onions, Garlic, Chives

These vegetables and herbs can cause gastrointestinal irritation and could lead to red blood cell damage and anemia. Cats are more susceptible, but dogs are also at risk if a large enough amount is consumed.


Alcoholic beverages and food products containing alcohol can cause vomiting, diarrhea, decreased coordination, central nervous system depression, difficulty breathing, tremors, abnormal blood acidity, coma, and even death. Never give your pet any alcohol.


Xylitol is used as a sweetener in many products, including gum, candy, baked goods, and toothpaste. It can cause insulin release in most species, leading to liver failure. The increase in insulin leads to hypoglycemia (lowered sugar levels). Initial signs of toxicosis include vomiting, lethargy, and loss of coordination. Signs can progress to seizures. Elevated liver enzymes and liver failure can be seen within a few days.

Raw/Undercooked Meat, Eggs, and Bones

Raw meat and raw eggs can contain bacteria such as Salmonella and E. coli that can be harmful to pets and humans. Raw eggs contain an enzyme called avidin that decreases the absorption of biotin (a B vitamin), which can lead to skin and coat problems. Feeding your pet raw bones can be dangerous as they might choke on bones, or sustain a grave injury should the bone splinter and become lodged in or puncture your pet’s digestive tract.

Salt and Salty Snack Foods

Large amounts of salt can produce excessive thirst and urination, or even sodium ion poisoning in pets. Avoid feeding salt-heavy snacks like potato chips, pretzels, and salted popcorn to your pets.


Avocado is primarily a problem for birds, rabbits, donkeys, horses, and ruminants including sheep and goats. The biggest concern is for cardiovascular damage and death in birds and rabbits. Horses, donkeys, and ruminants frequently get swollen, edematous head and neck.

Macadamia Nuts

Macadamia nuts can cause weakness, depression, vomiting, tremors, and hyperthermia in dogs. Signs usually appear within 12 hours of ingestion and can last approximately 24 to 48 hours.

Yeast Dough

Yeast dough can rise and cause gas to accumulate in your pet’s digestive system. This can be painful and can cause the stomach to bloat, and potentially twist, becoming a life-threatening emergency. The yeast produce ethanol as a by-product and a dog ingesting raw bread dough can become drunk.

Milk and Dairy

Because pets do not possess significant amounts of lactase (the enzyme that breaks down lactose in milk), milk and other dairy-based products cause them diarrhea or other digestive upset.


Nuts, including almonds, pecans, and walnuts, contain high amounts of oils and fats. The fats can cause vomiting and diarrhea, and potentially pancreatitis in pets.


The stems, leaves, peels, fruit, and seeds of citrus plants contain varying amounts of citric acid, essential oils that can cause irritation and possibly even central nervous system depression if ingested in significant amounts. Small doses, such as eating the fruit, are not likely to present problems beyond minor stomach upset.

Coconut and Coconut Oil

When ingested in small amounts, coconut and coconut-based products are not likely to cause serious harm to your pet. The flesh and milk of fresh coconuts do contain oils that may cause stomach upset, loose stools or diarrhea. Coconut water is high in potassium and should not be given to your pet.

It’s important to note that every dog is unique and may react differently to certain foods. Always consult with your veterinarian before introducing new foods into your dog’s diet. If you suspect your pet has ingested a harmful substance, contact your veterinarian or the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center immediately.

Discover the benefits of probiotics for your dog’s health in our article Unleashing the Power of Probiotics in Your Dog’s Diet.

Creating a Balanced Diet for Your Dog

A balanced diet is crucial for your dog’s overall health. It should include a mix of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals. While commercial dog foods are formulated to meet these nutritional needs, incorporating some safe human foods can provide variety and additional nutrients.


Proteins are essential for building and repairing tissues. They also play a crucial role in the functioning of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. High-quality sources of protein for dogs include lean meats like chicken, turkey, and fish.


Carbohydrates provide energy and are essential for the functioning of the nervous system. They also aid in digestion and promote a feeling of fullness. Whole grains like brown rice and oatmeal are excellent sources of carbohydrates for dogs.


Fats are a concentrated source of energy and are necessary for absorbing vitamins. They also contribute to a healthy coat and skin. Healthy sources of fats for dogs include fish oil and flaxseed oil.

Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamins and minerals are necessary for various bodily functions, including bone growth, wound healing, and maintaining a healthy immune system. Fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of vitamins and minerals for dogs.

Remember, moderation is key when feeding your dog human foods. These should supplement, not replace, their regular dog food. Always consult with your vet before making any significant changes to your dog’s diet.

The Role of DNA Testing in Your Dog’s Diet

Understanding your dog’s unique genetic makeup can provide valuable insights into their dietary needs. Certain breeds may be predisposed to specific health conditions that can be managed or prevented with the right diet. For instance, some breeds are more prone to obesity and may benefit from a low-fat diet, while others may have a higher risk of kidney stones and require a diet low in certain minerals.

Companies like Embark Vet, Wisdom Panel, Orivet, 5Strands, and DNA My Dog offer comprehensive DNA tests that can help you understand your dog’s unique genetic makeup. These tests can reveal information about your dog’s breed, ancestry, health risks, and even traits. This information can be invaluable in tailoring a diet that meets your dog’s specific needs.

For example, Embark Vet offers a Breed + Health Kit that tests for over 200 genetic health risks, allowing you to make proactive decisions about your dog’s health. Wisdom Panel, on the other hand, offers a range of tests that provide breed identification as well as screening for genetic health conditions and traits.

Orivet offers a range of genetic services, including breed identification, health risk screening, and life plan services, which provide personalized wellness plans based on your pet’s breed, age, weight, and other factors. 5Strands offers affordable testing options to identify food and environmental intolerances, helping you eliminate problem items from your dog’s diet. DNA My Dog provides breed identification and checks for genetic age markers, allowing you to better understand and cater to your dog’s health as they age.

By understanding your dog’s unique genetic makeup, you can make informed decisions about their diet and overall health, ensuring they live a long, happy, and healthy life.

The Key to a Healthy Dog is a Balanced Diet

Feeding your dog a balanced diet is one of the most important things you can do for their health. By understanding which foods are safe and which are harmful, you can ensure your dog gets the nutrients they need while avoiding potential health risks.

Remember, every dog is unique, and what works for one dog may not work for another. Always consult with your vet before making any significant changes to your dog’s diet. And consider investing in a DNA test to gain valuable insights into your dog’s unique dietary needs.

Learn how to choose the best puppy food in our guide Choosing the Best Puppy Food: Key Factors to Consider.

At ThePetPicks.com, we understand that your dog is more than just a pet – they’re family. That’s why we’re committed to providing you with the most accurate, up-to-date information to help you make the best decisions for your furry friend. Because they’re family, and they deserve the best.


What fruits and vegetables can my dog eat?

Many fruits and vegetables are safe for dogs and can provide essential vitamins and minerals. These include apples (seeds removed), bananas, blueberries, cucumbers, carrots, and peas. However, it’s important to feed these in moderation as too much can lead to gastrointestinal upset.

Are there any human foods that are toxic to dogs?

Yes, several human foods are toxic to dogs. These include chocolate, coffee, caffeine, grapes, raisins, onions, garlic, chives, alcohol, xylitol, raw/undercooked meat, eggs, and bones, salt and salty snack foods, avocado, macadamia nuts, yeast dough, milk and dairy, nuts, citrus, and coconut and coconut oil.

How can a DNA test help with my dog’s diet?

A DNA test can provide valuable insights into your dog’s unique genetic makeup, revealing information about their breed, ancestry, health risks, and traits. This information can be invaluable in tailoring a diet that meets your dog’s specific needs.

How often should I feed my dog?

Most adult dogs should be fed once or twice a day. Puppies usually require more frequent feedings. However, the exact amount and frequency can depend on your dog’s age, breed, health, and activity level. Always consult with your vet to determine the best feeding schedule for your dog.

Can I give my dog dietary supplements?

While some dogs may benefit from dietary supplements, not all dogs need them. In fact, over-supplementation can be harmful. Always consult with your vet before giving your dog any dietary supplements.

This blog post is intended for informational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional veterinary advice. Always consult with a veterinarian for any medical concerns or dietary questions related to your pet.

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